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Topic A: International Migration in Latin America and the Caribbean

 

About 28.5 million Latin American and Caribbean people live outside the countries where they were born, 70% of them in the United States (ECLAC). 

 

International immigration is a global problem that has its roots on social, economic and political crises. Thus, the impact of change in the global economic situation causes great migration erosion. A large problem when talking about border migrants is the fact that they still remain exposed to situation were they can’t exercise their human rights both during the journey and at the place of destination. These situations include slavery, prostitution, abuse, gender violence, discrimination, lack of social support networks and obstacles to obtain basic health services.   

 

Additionally, on of the biggest problem today is the stigmatization of migrants, together with other forms of discrimination, racism and xenophobia that affect migrants from all regions.  Another problem dealing with migration involves  “mixed migrations” that mean whether the country is dealing with refugees, asylum seekers, economic migrants, unaccompanied minors, environmental migrants, stranded migrants or victims of trafficking and smuggling. As a conclusion, there has been an enormous social impact of international migration and this is of great concern, in the context that migration had become a fundamental component of societies and economies.

 

Tópico A: Migración Internacional en América Latina y el Caribe

 

Alrededor de 28,5 millones de latinoamericanos y caribeños viven fuera de sus países de origen, el 70% de estos viven en los Estados Unidos (CEPAL).

 

La inmigración internacional es una problemática global que tiene sus raíces en las crisis sociales, económicas y políticas. Así mismo,  el cambio en la  economía mundial causo gran erosión de inmigrantes.  Uno de los problemas cuando se habla de los inmigrantes fronterizos es el hecho  de que están expuestos  a una situación donde no pueden ejercer sus derechos humanos, tanto durante el viaje como en el lugar de destino. Estas situaciones incluyen; la esclavitud, la prostitución, la violencia de genero, la discriminación, la falta de redes de apoyo social y los obstáculos para obtener los servicios básicos de salud.

 

Adicionalmente, el mayor problema cuando se habla de inmigrantes es la estigmatización de aquellos, junto con otras formas de discriminación, racismo y xenofobia. También, es importante saber que  hay circunstancias en donde existen “migraciones mixtas” que incluye refugiados, solicitantes de asilo, inmigrantes económicos, menores no acompañados,  inmigrantes ambientales, inmigrantes desamparados y victimas de la trata de personas y/o contrabando. En conclusión, la inmigración internacional ha causado grandes impactos sociales y es motivo de gran preocupación, en el contexto de la inmigración como un componente fundamental de las sociedades y las economías de los países.

 

 

Topic B: Conflicts in Latin America and the Caribbean

 

Latin America has a long history of political violence with domestic conflicts of different levels of intensity. Political violence has included civil wars, guerilla movements, military intervention, coups d’état, terrorism and other forms of violent confrontation. Thus, the socio- economic structure of Latin America is characterized by large inequalities of income and poverty. In spit of reforms, the regions chronic problems or low and erratic growth, persistent poverty, inequality and social exclusion have not yet been solved because of the lack of distinction of intensity of conflicts.

 

Most of the time political violence as related to movement of social protest against established powers is focused on defending ideologies dedicated to the welfare of their citizens. Therefore, in this case we want to focus on the different levels of social conflicts that each country has and how this affects democracy and development opportunities.  Latin America and the Caribbean have had corrupt and weak institutions that in turn result in underdevelopment-poverty, inequality, and social exclusion.

 

Tópico B: Conflictos en América Latina y El Caribe

 

América Latina ha tenido una larga historia de violencia política cuando se habla de conflictos internos. La violencia política incluye; guerras civiles, movimientos de guerrilla, intervención militar, golpes de estado, terrorismo y otras formas de confrontación violenta. Por ello, la estructura socio económica de la región se caracteriza por desigualdades  en ingresos y altos índices de pobreza. Aunque ha habido varias reformas, estas no distinguen entre regiones de alto nivel de pobreza, desigualdad y exclusión social.

 

Cuando se habla de violencia política en relación con los movimientos de protesta social contra los poderes establecidos casi siempre estos movimientos se centran en defender ideologías dedicadas al bienestar de los ciudadanos. Por lo tanto, en este caso queremos centrarnos en los diferentes niveles de conflictos sociales de cada país, y como aquello afecta la democracia y las oportunidades de desarrollo en la región. En conclusión, américa latina y el caribe se han caracterizado por tener instituciones corruptas, débiles y como consecuencia esto trae subdesarrollo, pobreza, desigualdad y exclusión social.

 

SPECIALIZED COMMITTEE

Economic Commission For Latin America and the Caribbean

Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe

 

Letter from your Chair

 

Dear Delegates,

 

Welcome to ECLAC! My name is Juliana Carvajal and I will be your chair for this committee at MICSUN V! I was born and raised in Medellin, Colombia so I am a proud Latin American. I became a member of the Model UN team this year, but have been involved with MUN since I was in Middle School.

 

I am a senior here at the University of Miami majoring in Political Science and International Relations with minors in in Latin American Studies and Business Law. I am also involved in the debate team and compete specially in the Spanish division. I have always enjoyed participating in debates and conferences because I think you acquire skills that you will not gain anywhere else. You meet incredible people and at the same time develop speaking, researching and bargaining abilities.

 

The ECLAC committee will be conducted in both English and Spanish. You as a delegate can choose in what language to debate but in general the DAIS will be conducting its operations in Spanish. This committee will be discussing two of the most present issues in the region. With international Immigration you will have the chance to evaluate and design the most important policies to solve the issue. On the other hand, with conflicts in Latin America and the Caribbean you will have the change to discuss to what extent political violence affect  nations and cause large inequalities.

 

I look forward to welcoming you at University of Miami this April. If you have any questions before the conference, please don’t hesitate to contact me at julikarva@hotmail.com

 

 

Juliana Carvajal

Chair, ECLAC

MICSUN V 

 

 

Carta de su Moderador

 

 

 

Juliana Carvajal

Moderador, CEPAL

MICSUN VV